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The Synthesizing Role of The I.N.A. Martyrs' Memorial: Moirang & The Indo-Japanese Peace Cenotaph: Lotpaching (Red Hill)

Manindra Singh Mairembam

Highlights of the Freedom Struggle and the Imphal Campaign:

Year/Month/Date Events In Brief With Its Implications:

1) Prince Narendrajit _ a cousin of Raja Chandrakirti _ joined the mutineers of the (Sepoy 34th Native infantry and advanced upto the western frontier of Manipur; and Mutiny)
2) The Mutineers of 34th Native infantry were finally overcome; and Narendrajit captured.

1) Queen's Proclamation cleared the deck for constitutional reforms;
2) Accordingly Government by 'merchants for merchants' was to come to an end;
3) Indian States were to be treated as having internal sovereignty like sovereign states, but not as dependencies.

28 Dec 1885:
1) The Indian National Congress was founded by A. O. Hume, a British national; Dadabhai Naoroji, Gokhale, Ranade etc. provided inspiring leadership;
2) Manipur was very much "a sovereign Asiatic power till 1891".

27 Apr 1891:
1) In Anglo-Manipuri War a small army of Manipur fanned out in all 3 directions against three British columns coming from three different directions;
2) Advancing Britishers finally subdued Manipur in Khongjom battle in which Yubaraj Tikendrajit & Thangal General made supreme sacrifice as heroes; and
3) Their hallowed memory, as also of Lt. General Haojousana (Yaiskullakpa), Major Paona Brajabashi, Chinglensana, Heirang Khongja & Captain Wangkhei Meiraba need be laid in golden letters for posterity's sake.

1) First Nupilal against the British rule was fought for a political cause;
2) Meetings and demonstrations were held in Manipur in protest against collective fine & forced labour for acts of incendiarism (bungalow of Asst. Political Officer gutted by unknown miscreants);
3) The movement was suppressed by brute force;
4) But the Government had to review the order and punish the culprits; and
5) The agitation was led by Irungbam Ongbi Samujaobi, Leishangthem Kwathabi, Irungbam Ningol Dhabali, Laishram Ningol Juboti & R. K. Tharosana Devi etc.

1) Mass Movement launched against the Partition of Bengal (meant to divide a solid bloc of Hindu Bengalis) in mainland India;
2) Patriotic journals flourished; patriotic songs of Tagore, Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai enhanced the mass movement;
3) Boycott, picketing ,& defiance of law were the modus operandi;
4) Terrorist activities began in Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra, based on the theme: "Swaraj is our birthright".

1) Manipur saw Kuki Rebellion against recruitment of 2,000 hillmen to Double Company of Labour Corps to work in France in W. War I, following Raja Churachand Singh's extended help to the British; and
2) Besides contributing to the War Fund, Manipur gave Rs.1,38,000/- as War Loan, hoping that after the successful conclusion of war, King George V would transfer substantial power.

6 Apr 1919:
1) Satyagraha Movement against the Rowlatt Act, 1919 by which government could detain people for an indefinite period; and yet
2) Satyagraha were organized all over India.

13 Apr 1919:
1) Massacre of many unarmed & peaceful citizens attending a meeting in Jallian-wala Bagh, at the order of British General Dyer;
2) Gandhiji's estimate of 1,200 dead and 3,600 wounded;
3) Gandhiji commented on it as :"A shameful chapter in the history of British rule in India".

23 Dec 1919:
1) Royal assent to Govt of India Act, 1919 for British India, allowing popular governments _ a pointer to full responsible government;
2) Assent to establish Chamber of Princes in 600 native States in India;
3) Prince of Wales to be sent over to India to inaugurate Chamber of Princes.

1) Gandhiji's message of Swadeshi & Swarajya had a deep psychological impact on the hitherto unconcerned ordinary Indians; and
2) It infused a sense of dignity & self-respect among the unlettered people.

1) Non-Cooperation Movement was launched throughout India;
2) Organized Mass movement for national unity & countrywide struggle against imperialism;
3) Followed up: (a) constructive work viz. Khadi for self-help & self- reliance; (b) period of consolidation; and (c) introspection for Swadeshi in spirit; etc.

Feb 1922:
1) Saw outbreak of Chauri-Chaura mob violence; Non-Cooperation Movement.

1) Zaliangrong Naga Rebellion in the western hill area of Manipur;
2) Jadonang-led uprising spread to Naga Hills & the Kabui areas in Assam.

1) Calcutta session of Congress Party: Nehru proposed & Netaji seconded the historic resolution for demanding complete independence; and
2) Laikhuram Khogendrajit Singh from Manipur attended the Calcutta Congress Session as a visitor.

1) Simon Commission's India visit & Gandhiji's Hartal;
2) Therein Lala Lajpat Rai received a fatal injury.

Dec 1929:
1) Lahore Congress Session called for "Purna Swaraj";
2) Declared January 26, 1930 to be the first Independence Day;
3) Congress reasserted its demand for 'complete independence'.

26 Jan 1930:
1)(Purna Swaraj) Day was observed throughout India: " The British Government has ruined India, economically, politically, culturally & spiritually. We believe therefore that India must severe the British connection and attain the Purna Swaraj or complete independence.";
2) Lahore resolution: Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-31); & decided that Gandhiji go on ' Dandi March ' from Sabarmati Ashram to break the Salt Law.

12 Mar 1930:
1) Gandhiji's Dandi March: walked 200 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to reach Dandi (Gujarat) on 5th April, 1930.

4 May 1930:
1) Gandhiji launched Satyagraha on 6th April, 1930 but got arrested on May 4.

1) Kabui Rebellion in west Manipur hills finally stamped out;
2) Jadonang Haipu was hanged; and 3) Rani Gaidingliu convicted to jail for seven years.

5 Mar 1931:
1) Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
2) Gandhiji sailed for London to attend 2nd Round Table Conference (2nd RTC).

29 Aug 1931:
1) British Government allowed Gandhiji to attend RTC with his normal dress and with sandal and stick; Gandhiji landed at Bombay;
2) Arrested Gandhiji the following day (having already arrested Nehru the previous day at Bombay);
3) Agitationists followed up with constructive work in consolidation period.

28 Dec 1931:
1) L. Khogendrajit organized the first political party Nikhil Manipur Praja;
2) Organized Satyagraha demanding withdrawal of water-tax for public hydrants;
3) Government of Manipur reduced water-rate: 4) Seram Kala Singh, M. Tonjao Sharma, R.K. Bhubonsana, R.K. Latasana, R.K Tombirei arrested, but released after 5 days.

Sept 1932:
1) Presiding over the Third Indian Political Conference (London), Netaji marvelled at the role India must contribute to world culture.

1) While Congress President Netaji Subhas wrote his book: The Indian Struggle laying out his pragmatic ideas of nation-building task ahead.

1) Govt. of India Act enforced, under which popular ministries installed in British Indian provinces;
2) In October Nikhil Manipur Praja organized Satyagraha demanded inclusion of elected representative in Manipur State Darbar, in line with Govt. of India Act.
3) They also demanded withdrawal of cycle tax, stoppage of rice mills, etc.

1) Hundreds of agitationists arrested; 4 released on bail; 83 detained& later released ;
2) L.Khogendrajit, Ksh. Tomba Singh, Ch. Meramacha Singh, .Hawaimatol Singh and W. Ningthemjao Singh were convicted.

30 Dec 1938:
1) Chinga session: Nikhil Hindu Manipuri Mahasabha: it became a political party from that day by getting affiliation to the All India People's Party Conference /Congress party;
2) Organized Non-cooperation Movement, Swadeshi movement etc. in Manipur;
3) Bonfire of mill-clothes in Cheirap Court, demanding a legislative assembly in Manipur;
4) Civil Disobedience Movement organized throughout Imphal valley by felling 'tera' trees; fishing in impounded lakes; non-payment of taxes etc.; and
5) Hijam Irabot Singh was arrested & jailed on seditious charges.

Apri, 1939:
1) Netaji tendered resignation as the President of Congress Party.

6-13 Apr 1939:
1) Netaji's Forward Bloc organized Civil Disobedience Movement; and
2) Netaji was arrested; but he gave an ultimatum for his release.

Sept, 1939:
1) World War II broke out; Britain declared that India was at war with Germany;
2) Congress Ministers resign in seven provinces; 3) Tripuri (Jabalpur) Congress Session: Netaji's call: "The time has come to launch a striking movement to get Independence"; and
4) CPI Politbureau declared revolutionary approach to attain the Swaraj.

12 Dec 1939:
1) Second Nupilal (or Second Women's War) in Manipur against rice scarcity;
2) As a new uprising because Manipuri Mahasabha joined the agitation demanding popular assembly in State (First Nupi Lal was only against rising rice price);
3) Women activists seized trucks carrying rice; in the consequent scuffle at least 34 women suffered bayonet charge; and
4) Kh.Yaimabi Devi, B. Lakhi Devi, Ng .Angangjaobi Devi, W. Ibemhal, T. Sabi Devi and N. Kaboklei Devi were seriously injured. (Nupi Lal Statue).

13 Dec 1939:
1) A. Chaobiton Devi, Tonggou Devi and others organized a public meeting at the Police Lane, Imphal, with P. Tomal Singh in the chair & passed several resolutions concerning Civil Disobedience Movement throughout the State;
2) Organized Road blockade for stopping rice export; Closure of all rice mills; and Disallowing hoarding of rice/paddy; and
3) 150 women arrested; 4 (W. Tonggou, N. Khongnang, Ksh. Mukhi & M. Amubi) convicted for four months; 6 (A. Rajani, R.K.Sanatomba, L. Leibaklei, W. Kumari, S. Leimatol, and T. Sabi) convicted for 6 months.

7 Jan 1940:
1) Second political party viz.Manipur Praja Sammelani formed by H. Irabot Singh, Khogendrajit, K. Bidur, T. Amu Selung and many others launched a Non-cooperation & Civil Disobedience Movement all over Manipur with H. Irabot as President and E. Tompok as its Gen. Secy ;
2) Irabot imprisoned on 9 Jany; but as per resolution, the movement continued; 115 arrested; Irabot convicted for 3 years; and
3) Ph. Bedagarbha Sarma, N. Amu Singh, T. Amu Selung, H. Samu, P. Tomal, K. Kunjabihari, E. Tompok, L. Mera, Th. Ningthoujao & L. Kulabidhu also convicted for periods (3 to 18 months).115 persons arrested but later released.

1) Netaji decided to leave India in order to start liberation movement abroad;
2) But delayed his plan because of internal political reasons.

20 Nov 1940:
1) Netaji undertook hungerfast unto death; but
(Kali puja) 2) Netaji was released a week afterwards.

16 Jan 1941:
1) Netaji left India, disguised as Maulavi/insurance agent; his daring escape from India took 71 days.

3 Apr 1941:
1) Netaji reached Berlin as Signor Orlando Mazzotta; settled down in contacting Indians towards forming the India Legion; and
2) Netaji organized the Indian Legion in Germany with 8,000 British Indian soldiers who became POW's in Egypt.

7 Dec 1941:
1) Japan captured Pearl Harbour; and overran Malaya, Singapore, Burma etc. in quick succession in search of a Greater East Asian Nippon empire; and
2) All southeast Asian nations were overcome, even Thailand came under Japanese control without a fight.

15 Feb 1942:
1) Fujiwara, Commander of the Japanese Army secured surrender of 70,000 British Army at Singapore; and
2) For his role in the formative years Fujiwara is also known as 'Father of INA'.

1) The Bangkok Conference of Indian revolutionary groups endorsed view of the Tokyo Conference of Indian Revolutionaries; and
2) After forming INA, Gen. Mohan Singh & Capt. Md. Akram had jointly written to the Japanese Government to bring Netaji from Germany to Asia.

16 Feb 1942:
1) Fujiwara addressed the British army surrenderees(mostly Indians) to convey that Japan desires to fight British with the help of these surrenderees after organizing them as INA; and
2) Declared that Captain Mohan Singh would be the GOC of the new formation.

March 1942:
1) Tokyo Conference of Indian leaders was convened by Japan to evolve a strong Indian leadership with Rash Bihari Bose (Indian Independence League) etc.; and
2) But differences arose among Indian revolutionary groups, questioning Rash Bihari Bose's key role.

10 May 1942:
1) First aerial bombing of Imphal by Japanese aircrafts;
(Sunday) 2) Civilian population fled Imphal following 2nd Japanese Bombing of Imphal;
3) Police searched members of Manipuri Mahasabha and Praja Sammelani; and
4) S. Krishnamohan Singh, T. Lamphel, Mera Singh,W.Dasji & many social workers arrested during Second W.War after the 1st Japanese Bombing of Imphal.

16 May 1942:
1) Imphal became a war fortress, deserted by all civilian population; and
(Saturday) 2) Allied reinforcements for Strategic Defence of Imphal.

29 May 1942:
1) Netaji met Hitler, who refused to make a definite declaration on India's Independence after war (but kept it a closely guarded secret);
2) Hitler 'did not want the end of British domination in India on racial grounds';
3) Sir Stafford Cripps' India Visit; and the announcement of Cripps Plan.

June 1942:
1) In the interest of a strong leadership Indians decided to welcome Netaji; and
2) Japan concurred & sent out a submarine to Madagascar to bring Netaji safely from Germany.

July, 1942:
1) Quit India resolution of the historic Bombay Congress Session; and
2) Gandhiji's motto in the Quit India Movement: "Do or Die".

8 Aug 1942:
1) Fire-brand Indian Socialists declared war against Great Britain;
(night) 2) Gandhiji & all Congress leaders arrested and imprisoned; and
3) In 1942 Britishers fired on 538 occasions, killing 96& injuring 1630 persons.

9 Aug, 1942:
1) 60,000 Congress workers arrested; of which 26,000 convicted without trial;
2 ) Quit India Movement broadcast by Netaji from Azad Hind Radio, Germany, as a camouflage for Netaji's impending secret exit from Berlin to East Asia for the mission.

31 Aug 1942:
1) Netaji left Germany for Tokyo in a sleek German U-boat, with his adjutant Abid Hussain, A.C. N. Nambiar,& the Japanese Ambassador to Germany; and
2) The U-boat traversed 180 metres below the North Atlantic water in the face of of Allied offensive and scourging the Atlantic for any enemy movement.

8 Feb 1943:
1) Netaji reached Madagascar with two and a half tons of gold and thence boarded a Japanese submarine bound for Tokyo; and
2) Netaji took 79 days to complete the voyage.

28 Apr 1943:
1) K.Kunjabihari, L.Jogeswar and H.Ranbir Singh called on S.Krishnamohan Singh then taking shelter at Jiri (Meitram Kanglenjao); and
2) These Manipuris resolved to receive Japan then warring against British India;

6 May 1943:
1) Netaji reached Tokyo and conferred with the War-lords of Tokyo; and
2) Tokyo agreed to support the Indian cause for freedom.

2 July 1943:
1) Netaji reached Singapore and organized the Indian National Army (INA) with Rash Behari Bose.

21 Oct 1943:
1) Netaji announced formation of Provisional Government of Azad Hind Fauz.

23 Oct 1943:
1) Netaji declared war on Britain & America to vacate India; but
2) Not so, on the other two allies, one each in Europe and Asia USSR & China.

Nov-end, 1943:

1) Netaji attended the Greater East Asia Conference at Tokyo, as an observer only (because he still did not receive the mandate of people); and
2) On his way back he went to Shanghai & found Chiang Kai-shek a complete USA-puppet.

Jan 1944:
1) He shifted INA Hqs. from Singapore to Rangoon, to launch an attack on Imphal.

Mar 1944:
1) Netaji again shifted INA Hqs. again from Rangoon to Maymyo so as to facilitate full-scale attack on Imphal.

18 Mar 1944:
1) Colonel S.D. Malik_led INA/Nippon formation proceeded to India; he is the younger brother of Md.Wali Ullah, the then Durbar Member of Manipur;
2) Captain Naqvi Ahmed Choudhury, ADC to Col. S.D. Malik joined with another.

March 1944:
1) Yet another INA formation reached Nagaland with other Japanese units.

March 1944:
1) Subhas Brigade entered Manipur with 3 (three) Nippon Divisions.

April 1944:
1) Manipur became a vast war-field.

11 Apr 1944:
1) British army retreated to Phubala and Ningthoukhong.

13 Apr 1944:
1) All British soldiers evacuated from Moirang and Potsangbam areas;
2) But the 17th Indian Army Division stayed put at the Bishnupur camp;
3) INA annexed a major part of Manipur except a small area around central part of valley.

14 Apr 1944:
1) INA&the Japanese Army reached Trongloubi and captured the British camp; (5 p.m.)
2) The Indian Tri-colour flag was hoisted at Moirang Kangla by Colonel Malik of the INA.

29 Apr 1944:
1) By then the Allies brought in huge reinforcements and halted the INA/Nipponese assault on Imphal
2) Allied forces managed to throw back INA-Nipponese again & again from Imphal area.

24 May 1944:
1) The Allied Forces formed 'Composite Force', called Woodforce to hold out the Lotpaching (Red hill) till the last man.

25-30 May 1944:
1) Combat fighting on at Lotpaching between British and Japanese columns;
2) The Japanese soldiers were carpet-bombed by Royal Air Force planes and completely wiped out or routed.

2 June 1944:
1) Special Order of Lt. General Yanagida (Tanaka replaced) for a last-ditched effort, saying: "On this war rests the fate of the Empire".
2) Last bid for Imphal; meanwhile
3) Allied forces declared all male and female Manipuris working for the INA/Nipponese Army as 'traitors'.

20 July 1944:
1) General Mutaguchi gave final order to all Japanese forces fighting in Manipur to retreat;
2) Most Manipuris followed the retreating INA-Nippon forces via Saikot moving at night only and resting at daytime to avoid aerial bombing/sniping.

31 July 1944:
1) The retreating INA/Japanese and Manipuris reached Sikha camp.

2 Aug 1944:
1) While crossing a suspension bridge, they were targeted by aerial bombs dropped from Allied planes; but
2) No casualty was reported because they did spread out in the jungle.

6 Aug 1944:
1) Retreating INA/ Manipuris reached Pintha where K. Gopal Singh of Moirang was taken ill, and received treatment from one Dr. Chakravarty (INA),who earlier was at INA advance camp at Moirang;

15 Aug 1944:
1) The retreating INA/Manipuris reached INA camp at Enjung village; and
2) K.Gopal expired two days thereafter;and was cremated at the Chindwin river bank with full military honours.

25 Aug 1944:
1) The retreating INA/Manipuris left Enjung village for Rangoon to meet Netaji and receive further instructions; and
2) Reached U-bank camp on 2nd Sept; Sagaing on 8th Sept; Mandalay on 10th Sept; Pegu railway station on 15 Sept., and Rangoon INA Hqs on 16th Sept.;
3) Col. Malik and all other INA troops & Manipuris report to Netaji;
4) H.Nilamani Singh & other Manipuris stayed at Kandogaley area of Rangoon for a few months.

16 Sept 1944:
1) By Netaji's order the Manipuri group received further training to liberate Imphal

21 Oct 1944:
1) Air raids on Rangoon where Netaji went back for anniversary of Azad Hind Fauz anniversary; Air raid on during ceremony; and
2) Netaji refused to move until a soldier fell dead at Netaji's feet. Only then did the Netaji give order to disperse& take shelter from aircraft bomdardments & shellings.

Jan 1945:
1) Allied war machine rolling onto victory; INA lost all chances to advance;
2) Netaji ordered to fall back from Maymyo to a cane-growing area, Ziamadi,100 miles north of Rangoon.
3) Boiler-room of Bihari-manned Sugar Factory, Ziamadi, Burma (now Myanmar) bombed by Allied aircrafts;

Feb 1945:
1) Completed construction of Stilwell Road connecting India (Assam) to south China (Kunming) via Upper Burma, which claimed lives of 1,100 US servicemen and many more labourers;
2) Helped bust a 3-yr old Japanese blockade of China (both land and sea) (dismissed by Winston Churchill as a "laborious task, unlikely to be finished until the need for it has passed"
3)Supply line to beseiged China was inaugurated by convoy led by US General Joseph W. Stillwell;
4) Hastened the end of World War II.

6 Aug 1945:
1) Atom bomb, 'Little Boy' dropped on Hiroshima - historic occasion resulting in unprecedented devastation to the city in particular and Japan in general; and
2) A proactivated America warned Japan of further atom bombing unless immediately surrendered.

9 Aug 1945:
1) America dropped its second atom bomb 'Fat Man' on Nagasaki;
2) Japanese held an emergent War Council Meeting on date & surrendered after the holocaust on the twin cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

14 Aug 1945:
1) Netaji issues his last order as the Supreme Commander of the Azad Hind Fauz. (1500 hrs)

18 Aug 1945:
1) Tokyo Radio announced the 18th August aircrash report " killing Netaji".

8 Sept 1945:
1) Manipuris arrested by British in Rangoon and lodged in Rangoon Central Jail;
2) Later brought back to Calcutta and released.

19 Feb 1946:
1) Clement Attlee of British Labour Party declared his intent (election manifesto) to liberate India.

4 Oct 1946:
1) The newly Elected Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced grant of Independence to India.

14/15 Aug 1947:
1) Midnight Ceremony granting Independence to India.

(Compiled by the Contributor on the basis of War records and other accounts.)


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