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The Historical, Archaeological, Religious & Cultural Significance Of 'Kangla': The Ancient Citadel Of Manipur

Pandit N.Khelchandra Singh


This paper is based on inputs collected by the contributor during his pursuit from the Manipur Secretariat Library, where he worked, and from various other sources including National Archives and National Library which he used to frequent during his lifetime.

1. Capt. E.W.Dun: Gazetteer of Manipur (1886): p.23;
2. C.U.Aitchison (Comp): A Collection of Treatises, Engagements and Sanads: Sanad: No. LXXII (1909):p.198;
3. C.U. Aitchison: Ibid. p.198-199;
4. R.Brown: Statistical Account of Manipur: (first published: 1873). p.57;
5. R.Brown: Ibid. p.16;
6. M. Jhulon Singh: History of Manipuri Literature; p.45;
7. Kaomacha: Manipur Ittibritta. p.10;
8. James Johnstone: My Experiences in Manipur & Naga Hills (1896)London. p.83;
9. Ibungohal Singh, L, & Khelchandra Singh, N: Cheitharol Kumbaba: (Manipuri) (1967)p.458 & 531;
10. T.C.Hodson: The Meitheis. p.59;
11 . Brown: Ibid. p.83;
12. Brown: Ibid. p.83;
13. Ibungohal & Khelchandra. Ibid. pp.245, 296, 315, 377 & 469;
14. L.W. Shakespeare: History of Assam Rifles. p.175;
15. Mrs. Grimwood: My Three Years in Manipur. p.1891;
16. Laishram Mangi Singh and Longjam Mani Singh:Manipur Itihas Meitei Puran:Vijoy Pan- chali: Vol. I, II and III;
17. Brown: Ibid. p.2;
18. Michael Symes; Embassy to Ava.1800. p.78;
19. Brown: Ibid. p.82;
20. Brown: Ibid. p.82;
21. E.W.Dun: Ibid: p.23;
22. Sir James Johnstone: Ibid . p. 80:
23 Manipur Administration Report, 1891, p.2;
24. Brown: Ibid, p. 95-96;
25. N. Sanajaoba (Ed.): Footnote:The Genesis of Insurgency: Manipur Past & Present: Vol. 1: 1988: p.279;
26. As compiled from the columns of the Pioneer (Allahabad), 1891: Manipur; v 27. Manipur Administration Report, 1910-11;
28. Marwick:Two Approaches to Historical Study:The Metaphysical and the Historical: Jour- nal of Contemporary History: Vol .30, No.1.January 1995) p.12;
29. Ibungohal & Khelchandra. Ibid. p. 382;
30. Ibungohal & Khelchandra. Ibid. p. 270;
31. Ibungohal & Khelchandra. Ibid. p. 518;
32. Ibungohal: An Introduction to Manipur: p. 221;
33 Pemberton: Report of the Eastern Frontier of British India; :
34. Encyclopedia Britannia: Vol. 18. p.175;
35. R.K.Jhalajit Singh: A Short History of Manipur. p. 256.

Further References:

a) L.Ibungohal Singh:An Introduction to Manipur: Manipur Sahitya Parishad, Imphal,1963;
b) L.Ibungolhal Singh & N.Khelchandra Singh (Ed.) Cheitharol Kumbaba (in Manipuri) Imphal, 1967;
c) N.Khelchandra Singh: Ariba Manipuri Sahityagi Itihas: (in Manipuri): Imphal, 1969;
d) T.C.Hodson: The Meitheis: David Nutt, London, 1975;
e) E.W.Dun: Gazetteer of Manipur: Vivek Publishing House: Delhi (Reprint 1975);
f) E.W.Dun: Abridged Gazetteer of Manipur, 1891;
g) R.B.Pemberton: Report on the Eastern Frontier of British India: Govt. of Assam; (Reprint, 1966);
h) James Johnstone: My Experiences in Manipur and Nagaland: 1896;
i) J. Shakespeare: A Review of the Affairs of the Manipur State from 1891 to 1907;
j) C.U.Aitchison: A Collection of Treatises, Engagements and Sanads: Vol. XLII;
k) Manipur Administration Reports 1891-1947;
l) Meehourol Shakok (Manuscript);
m) W.McCulloch: Account of the Valley of Munnipore. Calcutta. 1859;
n) Kanghujamlon (Manuscript);
o) Khelchandra N: Naothingkhong Phamban Kaba: Imphal, 1967;
p) Bhogeswar, O: Ninthourol Lambuba: Imphal, 1967;
q) Ukak Latha (Manuscript);
r) Chakpa Khunda Khonthok (Manuscript);
s) Khelchandra: Chada Laihui: Imphal, 1966;
t) Khelchandra: Khuman Kangleiron: Imphal, 1980;
u) R.K.Jhalajit Singh: A Short History of Manipur; Imphal, 1965;
v) Miyat (Manuscript);
w) Moirang Ningthourol (Manuscript);
x) Atombapu Sharma: Pakhangba; Imphal, 1952;
y) Sangai Phammang (Manuscript).


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