Article details
The Historical, Archaeological, Religious & Cultural Significance Of 'Kangla': The Ancient Citadel Of Manipur

Pandit N.Khelchandra Singh

Related Notes of Interest while on this topic

Table No. 2-3:
Names of Traditional Royal Apparel:

Meitei King's (Ningthou's ): Meitei Queen's (Leima's):
1. Leirukhak 1.Phiset Leiren Leichao
2. Chari Ningthem 2.Kumshang Phanek
3. Phiren Phurit 3. Kabrang Kanak
4. Shonphi Hainingkham 4. Kabrang Khao-on
5. Kontha Phurit 5.Thabak Ngakthom
6.Innaphi Longdomphi 6. Khuton Khuthang Hianingkham

(Source: Compiled by the Editor from relevant annals )
Otherwise, ancient women of Manipur whether in the hills or the valley used to share the responsibility of engaging themselves in the cottage handicrafts and handloom weaving for sustenance and customary or honorific use on occasions. In particular textiles flourished during the time of king Loiyumba (1074-1122 A.D.), when he assigned different salais and clan-surnames to weave different types of clothes. Such division of labour assigned by this king came better known as 'Loiyumba shinyen' to encourage intra-competition and development of designs etc. on the same type of weaving among the same salai/surname: e.g. Tongkap Phanek to Chakpa Thiyam; Phiren (Ngabong) to Chakpam; Yarongphi (Pakhangba design) to Thongbam; Sarong Phi to Laikhuram; Leirum & Londhem to Sanjibam; Pumthit Phanek to Thingbam; and Ningthou Phi to Nongthombam. For dyeing yarn and cloth Loiyumba entrusted different colour to various salais or clans; Kum to Yumnam; red to Sapam; and yellow and dark brown to Ahanthem.

Weaving used to be undertaken by almost each and every housewife irrespective of high or low-bred. There used to be three scales of operation according to the type of loom used for weaving different kind of products:
(a) Pang-Eyong (throw-shuttle loom) used since the days of Pakhangba by his queen Laisna for coronation of her son, Khuyol Tompok;
(b)Khwang-Eyong (loin loom) as introduced by king Taothing Mang (264-364) for weaving thicker and coarse fabrics and clothes mostly for domestic use ; and
(c)Yoligkham (flyshuttle) as introduced by king Khagemba(1597-1652) for weaving fine and thin clothes to be used in ceremonial occasions and command performances etc.


     Powered by: